Today, there are several reasons for nuclear weapons states to reduce their arsenals. Regional stability, the negative effects of mistrust, and financial constraints in times of fiscal austerity are all good arguments to seek significantly lower numbers. The goal of downsizing nuclear arsenals has broad support. What is disputed is how to move forward. For overcoming technical and political–military impediments to further nuclear reductions, realistic assessment, creative concepts, and pragmatic solutions are needed. The Commission on Challenges to Deep Cuts is seeking to devise concepts on how to overcome current challenges to deep nuclear reductions. Through means of realistic analyses and specific recommendations, the Commission strives to translate the already existing political commitments to further nuclear reductions into concrete and feasible action.